Research

Characteristics of a universal simulator

According to many scientists, quantum computers will have great importance in the future but, despite all efforts, research in this field is still in its infancy. One of the difficulties is understanding what criteria a quantum system should meet to be able to solve problems that are impossible for conventional computers. An international research team headed by SISSA has just published a study that establishes a basic characteristic that universal quantum simulators should possess.

Weight and eating habits in Parkinson

A review of the scientific literature on Parkinson’s disease, conducted by SISSA research scientists, shows that even the non-motor symptoms associated with the disease can contribute to the changes in body weight seen in patients (including those subjected to deep brain stimulation). Among the factors affecting eating habits and body weight there could be, for example, an impaired ability to derive pleasure from food and changes in motivation.

“Dressing” in superconductors

The physical mechanism that generates superconductivity in materials at high critical temperature (like cuprates, which appear to be among the most promising materials for technological applications) remains a mystery.

(Nano)bearings on the test bench

“Nano–machines” (around one billionth of a metre in size) of the future will need tiny devices to reduce friction and make movement possible. The C60 molecule, also known as fullerene or buckyball, seemed to many an excellent candidate for nano-bearings. Unfortunately, the results so far have been conflicting, calling for further studies, like the one carried out by a theoretical team involving SISSA, ICTP, CNR and EMPA. Through a series of computer simulations the scientists uncovered the reason for the experimental discrepancies and shed light on the true potential of this material.

The first and the last

Children start to learn the sound of words by remembering the first and last syllables. A SISSA study, published in Child Development, sheds light on the information the infant brain uses during language acquisition and the format in which it stores words in its memory.

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The channel that relaxes DNA

A simple and effective way of unravelling the often tangled mass of DNA is to “thread” the strand into a nano-channel. A study carried out with the participation of the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste used simulations to measure the characteristics that this channel should have in order to achieve maximum efficiency.

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The electric slide dance of DNA knots

DNA is an electrically charged molecule, and for this reason the knots that form spontaneously along the strand can be manipulated by applying electric fields, as done by Cristian Micheletti, professor at SISSA, and his team. The research paper has just been published in Soft Matter and is the first example of a technique allowing DNA knots to be driven from the outside.

Flashes of light on the superconductor

A study just published in Nature Communications and carried out by a collaboration of several Italian and international centres, including SISSA, used a technique based on applying short flashes of light to observe and analyse the features of a superconductor at high critical temperature, a material with major prospects for technological applications. In addition to providing an explanation for the peculiar behaviour of the material, the study also opens to the possibility of controlling its characteristics by means of laser pulses.

A simple solution for big data

Categorizing and representing huge amounts of data (we’re talking about peta- or even exabytes of information) synthetically is a challenge of the future. A research paper from the International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, published in Science, proposes an efficient procedure to face up to this challenge.

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Studiare i gemelli per capire il pregiudizio

Il pregiudizio verso le altre etnie ha basi culturali, ma anche componenti innate. Comprendere questi aspetti ereditari, meno studiati dei primi, è importante per contrastare il fenomeno e migliorare l’integrazione sociale. Parte fra pochi giorni uno studio della SISSA di Trieste in collaborazione con l’Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) di Roma, che studierà le componenti innate del pregiudizio nei gemelli.

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